Provide a 8 pages analysis while answering the following question: Groundwater Quality Review: Thames Valley Gravels. Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide. An abstract is required. Site selection is based on the aquifer’s conceptual model. The network in its current state uses boreholes of public water supplies and offers good coverage. A significant part of the information is offered by water supply companies. The dataset encompasses data from fourteen private and nineteen public supply sources (Figure 3) (Gomme, Joe and Buss 9).
Groundwater chemistry in Mid-Thames Valley Gravels is characterized by the domination of calcium and bicarbonate ions. This is represented on the Piper diagram (Figure 2). The biggest part of the point that corresponds to calcium and bicarbonate ions are near the vertices what highlights the domination of these ions. The highest concentration of magnesium ions is at site 1560, but it is significantly smaller than the concentration of calcium and bicarbonate. Sodium concentration is different at different sites and does not present a clear trend.
Anions like chloride, sulfate and nitrate are also present in variable quantities. Waters of the North and West are usually dominated by calcium bicarbonates. It can be explained by the fact that gravels of that region are in many cases in hydraulic continuity with the Chalk. Chalk groundwater is also characterized by a high quantity of these ions.
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The South-central part can be characterized by high concentrations of sulfate. For example, sites 1558 and 1553 (Table 2), which are located close to the Thames. High conductivity is also one of the features of the area.
The next region has particularly high quantities of chloride and sodium. These ions are found in a number of areas: a cluster from Slough to Maidenhead found in Hounslow, Staines, and Esher. It is believed that sodium most likely comes from road de-icing. To support the statement sites 1546 and 0722 can be mentioned. They are located at industrial sites in close proximity to major road junctions. Moreover, sites 0535 and 0648 are close to a highway and also manifest elevated sodium amount.
Sites 1560 and 1546 exhibit a high proportion of sulfates, chlorides, and magnesium. Other unusual features, like an elevated quantity of dissolved oxygen and chlorinated hydrocarbons, are also one of the characteristics of the area.
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